Hemorrhoids: definition, symptoms, treatment


Hemorrhoids: definition, symptoms, treatment

Hemorrhoidal disease, more commonly known as hemorrhoids, is defined as inflammation and excessive dilation of hemorrhoidal veins that can cause pain.

Hemorrhoidectomy preparation and recovery
Hemorrhoidectomy preparation and recovery

Hemorrhoids: definition

The Hemorrhoids are blood vessels in the anal canal.

There are 2 types of hemorrhoids:

  • The internal hemorrhoids are located deeper in the anal mucosa. They are sensitive to the pressure of stools and gases but are not usually painful.
  • The external hemorrhoids are more superficial and are found under the skin of the anus.
    In common parlance, we speak of hemorrhoids to designate all the symptoms provoked by the irritation and the swelling of these vessels.

Some parameters may promote or aggravate symptoms:

  • Constipation or diarrhea ;
  • Physical inactivity ;
  • Overweight and obesity ;
  • Consumption of alcohol or spices;
  • Certain activities or sports involving the carrying of heavy loads;
  • The pregnancy, the birth and the period following the period before menstruation.


Internal vs external hemorrhoids
Internal vs external hemorrhoids

Symptoms related to the hemorrhoidal disease can vary from one person to another. Moreover, this pathology exists either in acute form, what is called the hemorrhoidal crisis, or in chronic form.


The symptoms observed are as follows:

  • Pain described as a sensation of heat, swelling, and tension in the anus. It is amplified by defecation or exercise and attenuated during lying down. The pain may persist for a few days (2 to 4);
  • Bleeding (called rectorrhagia) can be seen after defecation;
    Tumefactions can be described in the case where the internal hemorrhoids are externalized by the anus;
  • Hemorrhoidal thrombosis (blood clot in hemorrhoid) that manifests as purple swelling at the orifice of the anus.

In most cases, the symptoms disappear on their own after a few days. However, recurrences are not uncommon. Moreover, hemorrhoids, although sometimes very painful and embarrassing, do not cause serious complications.

When the hemorrhoidal disease has been evolving for several years, daily symptoms (pain, itching) may be present.

See more: Should the hemorrhoids be relieved with cold or hot water?


In the presence of any repeated anal bleeding, it is advisable to consult your doctor who will check by an examination of the anal and rectal area that the origin of the bleeding is well hemorrhoidal. It is also possible to consult when the pain is too intense despite a diagnosis of known hemorrhoidal disease.

The diagnosis of hemorrhoidal disease is established by simple observation of lesions through an anoscope. No further examination is necessary unless the doctor wishes to rule out another pathology.


To relieve the pain associated with hemorrhoids, several treatments can be proposed:

  • Analgesics ( paracetamol , anti-inflammatory);
  • Local treatments with (when they contain corticosteroids) or without a prescription in the form of an ointment, cream or suppositories;
  • Oral drugs such as venotonic or homeopathy.

When internal hemorrhoids cause repeated seizures that alter the patient’s daily life, the doctor may propose during the consultation, a treatment by ligation, sclerosis (injection of chemical product), electro or photocoagulation (electric or infrared burn). The goal is to create a scar area in the distended hemorrhoids to strengthen it.

In the case of external hemorrhoids responsible for painful thrombosis, surgery is considered.


What's a hemmoroid

Some measures can prevent hemorrhoids :

  • Fight constipation by eating a diet high in fiber (fruits, vegetables, etc.) and hydrating enough;
  • Practice regular physical activity ;
  • Avoid standing or sitting too long;
  • Identify foods that cause seizures and limit them
  • Be alert to certain medications that can promote constipation;
  • Have correct anal hygiene (regular washing with lukewarm water with a cotton towel or a wet wipe).

We recommend reading the article: Hemorrhoid burst: 7 methods to treat them